Fire Emergency Evacuation Procedures

Understanding Fire Emergency Evacuation Procedures

Before entering the explanation of the Emergency Evacuation Procedures Fire, we should note in advance about the types of existing Emergency. A state of emergency is an incident / situasu / abnormal condition occurs suddenly disrupt the activities of individuals, groups, or the environment and these activities must be dealt with immediately. This emergency situation can turn into a disaster that resulted in many casualties and material damage.

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Earthquake kit – Type Emergencies Natural hazard (Natural Disaster) such as flood, drought, cyclone, storm, earthquake, lightning, tsunami and so on. While Technological Hazard (Technical Failure) for example is a power outage, dam collapse, nuclear leaks, Event Fire / explosion, Accidents / traffic. while the other types of emergencies caused by human social relations such as riots war, riots, anarchist demo and so on. in this article will be devoted to discuss about the Emergency Evacuation Procedures Fire.

Emergency Evacuation Procedures when Fire Alarm Fire Burning

The occurrence of fire must meet three main elements, namely fuel, heat and oxygen. if three elements are met then it will cause a fire. fire cycle within 3-10 minutes will reach the point of 600-1000 degrees Celsius. it is this which will enable the automatic fire alarm in the building.

Fire alarm network will be lit when no manual input of a human via push button, through heat or smoke detectors installed, or no activation of the control room. at this stage, it is necessary to confirm first of the nearest officer who is at the source of the alarm. could be, false alarms were sounded. this can be caused by human error or technical fault on the network installation.

if there is a fire, the Fire Emergency Evacuation Procedures must be done immediately. when he first heard the alarm go off, then do first is to warn people to be vigilant around. turn off all electronic equipment that is plugged in, locked filing cabinet, move objects that are flammable to the point that if it were safe, Save important documents, and Be prepared and get ready to wait instruction / announcement of Fire Commander and Safety Representative.

Fire Emergency Evacuation Procedures

Note measures Fire Emergency Evacuation Procedures which will be directed by the safety department as follows:

  • Stay calm and do not panic
  • Immediate emergency stairs closest to ordinary walking quickly but not running
  • Remove the high heels because of difficult in footfall
  • Do not carry items larger than a briefcase / handbag
  • Tell others / guests who still resides in another room to immediately evacuate
  • If the views covered with smoke, walk by crawling on the wall or banister on the stairs, set breathing shallowly
  • do not be reversed because it would collide with the people behind you and impede evacuation
  • Head to a rallying point in the venue to wait for the next instruction

We never wanted the fires occurred, but at least if we understand Emergency Evacuation Procedures Fire then we will be able to take steps and decisions in accordance with procedures if a case of fire in the environment in which we live.

Tips to Save Yourself When Earthquake in Tall Buildings

An earthquake often occur in various regions of Indonesia. Earthquake often causes panic, especially for those who work in tall buildings, earthquake emergency kit

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1. If Barada in the building and could not escape it must be dropped to the floor and then seek protective to be under a desk or sturdy furniture until the shaking stops.

2. If there is no table, then protect your face and head with your arms and pressed against the inside wall or the main pillar supporting the building. This is to prevent the falling debris of the building.

3. Avoid or stay away from glass and glassware or walls that can befall risk.

4. Remaining silent in the room until the shaking stops and safe to come out.

5. Do not use the elevator to go down, but use the emergency stairs

6. With disabilities.

Chairman of the Jakarta recue Hadianto W in the event of an earthquake on the Activities of Bhakti Building, Jl Veteran, states needed a captain to lead the evacuation floor in high rise buildings. Floor captain should undergo training every year.

Flour captain in charge of coordinating the inhabitants of the floor for the evacuation of an earthquake. Floor captain was the last person out of the floor and stated that the floor is safe or there are those who do not want to be evacuated for various reasons

Why is it necessary to buy earthquake insurance?

Do you think an earthquake will not affect you? You may be right, you may be wrong as well. Earthquake kit list although forecasts of such disasters occurring are based on probabilities, some scientists have been right in their predictions.

Let’s go back to the earthquake that struck the coffee in 1999 and killed more than 1,000 people and destroyed about 35,000 homes.

A few months before the disaster occurred, punctually in October 1999, two professors from the University of Quindio showed that there was a high probability of occurrence of an earthquake in that region. However, few believed in this estimate.

Why is it necessary to buy earthquake insurance?

Now history repeats itself. Engineer Hugo Monsalve, director of the Seismological Observatory at the same university, he has been discussing for several months that there is a 87 percent probability of occurrence of an earthquake before the end of the year.

Although this type of study is not a certainty and it is impossible to date to know when an earthquake will occur, you and your family can buy insurance to cover damage to your home for this phenomenon. Even some insurers offer protection to their furniture, appliances and even jewelry are at home.

‘AN EARTHQUAKE WILL NOT OCCUR, THE BETTER NOT BUY THAT MONEY SAVING AND ME’

Law 675 of 2001, which regulates the current regime in Colombia Horizontal Property, emerged after the earthquake in the coffee region and within its purposes is “the social function of property”.

According to Claudia Chávez, manager Solve Your Debt website, this law states that insurance should be seen as a tool with which life and functionality of the same events affecting the stability of the co-ownership is guaranteed.

In this context, property owners should be required to purchase insurance to protect their property from fire and earthquake risks, so as to ensure, at least, its reconstruction.

The unfortunate thing is that the law has not been regulated and there are loopholes that prevent punish those who fail to comply.

“This has led to believe wrong way is not compulsory insurance, and it is common to see decisions not to buy insurance or low-allocate budgets for the purchase of the same amount,” added Chavez.

However, having a policy with earthquake coverage should be imperative for owners of commercial establishments and families.

“Due to the geographical location of our country there is a higher probability of occurrence of these phenomena compared to other countries. Although insurance does not prevent such events from happening, if you generate tranquility to people because it protects their heritage. In the case of suffering material losses can restore your business or purchase a new home, “he said Juana Llano, Manager of Enterprise Business Insurance Sura.

For this reason, buying insurance should not be seen as an additional expense. In addition, if an obligation by law, disaster insurance should be taken as an investment that protects against any eventuality.

In the case of co-ownership, shared by two or more properties, manager Solve Your Debt remember that there is a compulsory insurance commons that functions as a tool, with all buildings or residential complexes subject to horizontal property regime which helps protect property against various risks and ensure its reconstruction.

WHAT IS COVERED?

Insurance should be viewed in a comprehensive manner, ie covering various risks to which the goods are exposed.

Earthquake coverage is an optional coverage within the assurance of movable and immovable property, for which the policies of this type always go with a basic coverage includes events that generate material damage resulting from fire, lightning, explosions, floods, including others.

“Within the coverage of earthquake protection is offered against catastrophic natural hazards like earthquakes, earthquake, volcanic eruption, tsunamis, tidal wave and storm surge, when these affect the real or personal property,” said Juana Llano.

If you wish, you can include optional coverage for terrorism, civil liability for damage to third parties, damage to machinery and emergency assistance.

HOW MUCH?

The value of the insurance premium is calculated based on the individual characteristics of the property to ensure within which highlights the geographical location of the property, the activity that it develops, insured values, the required coverage, the year and type of construction.

An exercise done by Portafolio.co showed that for most areas of the country, the annual cost of fire insurance and earthquake is calculated on the market value of the constructed area of ​​the property.

In the case of earthquake insurance on average 1.30 pesos per $ 1,000 of the market value of the destructible part of the property are paid while in case of fire varies between 1.70 and 2.20 pesos.

If you only want to insure their property, contents insured values ​​must be between 10 and 150 million.

For insurance the average rate is 3.2 per 1,000. That is, that for a building of 100 million, the policy would cost about 320,000 pesos plus VAT for one year of protection.

RECOMMENDATIONS TO ACQUIRE TIME INSURANCE

Before hiring a safe, compare and analyze the offer is in the insurance market. In addition, clear all doubts about the cost and benefits you will have with each of the options.

“Take an inventory of the assets you have at home, this will allow you to give a set value as possible to reality,” advises Claudia Chávez.

It is also important to be aware of underinsurance, because according to the manager Solve Your Debt, which occur when the value of the sum insured is less than the actual value of the property covered: “Insurers try to avoid this situation by asking in their policies that the declared value is equal to the actual value of the insured property or declaring that the insured value is less than the actual value of the asset “.

In any case, insurance will help avoid any loss resulting from a catastrophe, and most importantly, have one protect the heritage and pocket.

Impact of the Global Mount Krakatau eruption part2

ERUPTION IN 1883

Before the eruption in 1883, Mount Krakatoa erupted in 1680 produces acid andesitic lava. Then in 1880, Mount Perbuwatan actively secretes though erupting lava. After that time, no volcanic activity at Krakatoa until May 20, 1883. Since this date, the seismic activity began to occur around the mountain is intense with a series of eruptions that are lighter, after 200 years of sleep. That early signs would be devastating eruption in the Sunda Strait. This intensity continues with a small eruption that peaked on 26-27 August 1883.

On the day Monday, August 27, 1883, at exactly 10:20, going on a series of four large explosions on the mountain that almost destroyed the entire island. According to Simon Winchester, a geologist graduated from Britain’s Oxford University and author of National Geographic said that the blast was the biggest, the loudest voice and the most devastating volcanic events in modern human history.

Earthquake kit list – The combined effects of pyroclastic flows, volcanic ash, and the tsunami disaster in the region produce effects throughout the world. The most famous Krakatau eruption culminated in a series of large explosions, which included one of the most violent volcanic events in history.

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Fatalities

The eruption was so powerful, according to official records colonial Dutch East Indies, 165 villages and towns near Krakatau destroyed, and 132 damaged, and hot clouds and the resulting tsunami killed about 36,000 people (other sources mention 36,417 deaths), although some sources give estimates more than 120,000.

They came from 295 villages coastal areas ranging from Merak in Cilegon until Cilamaya in Karawang, West coast of Banten to Tanjung Layar in Ujung Kulon Panaitan Island and southern parts of Sumatra. There are many documented reports of groups of human skeletons floating in the Indian Ocean on a raft floating volcanic and swept the east coast of Africa up to a year after the eruption.

explosion Sounds

The sound of the eruption was heard 4,830 km (3,000 miles) away in Alice Springs Australia towards the east and the island of Rodrigues near Mauritius Africa, as far as 4,653 kilometers to the west. This explosion is regarded as the loudest sound ever heard in modern history, it can even be heard by 1/8 of the earth’s population at that time. The sound of the eruption was reported so hard that if there are people within a radius of ten miles (16 km), then they will become deaf.

With an estimated Volcanic explosivity index (VEI) reached 6 eruption was equivalent to the explosion of 200 megatons of TNT (840 PJ) – approximately 13,000 times the impact of a nuclear bomb Little Boy (13-16 kt) that destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, during World War II, and four times the impact of the Tsar Bomba (50 Mt), the most powerful nuclear device ever detonated.

tsunami

Krakatoa explosion resulting tsunami. Until before the tragedy of the tsunami in Aceh on 26 December 2004, this was the most powerful tsunami in the Indian Ocean region. In Ujungkulon, flood entrance to 15 km to the west.

The tsunami waves that caused even spilled over to the coast of Hawaii, Central America and the west coast of the Arabian Peninsula are 7000 kilometers away. Tsunami (ocean waves) rose as high as 40 meters of destroyed villages and whatever is on the coast. The tsunami was caused not only by the eruption but also submarine landslide.

Climate change

The eruption of Krakatau generates a volcanic winter (reducing the temperature around the world with an average of 1.2 ° C for 5 years). This eruption caused global climate change. The next day until a few days later, residents of Jakarta and Lampung hinterland no longer see the sun. The world was dark for two and a half days due to volcanic ash that covered the atmosphere.

The sun shines dim until next year. Scattering of dust visible in the sky Norway to New York. Average global temperatures dropped as much as 1.2 degrees Celsius for up to one year after the eruption. The weather pattern will then be screwed over the years and the temperature does not return to normal until 1888.

material vomit

Krakatoa explosion had been throwing stones pumice and volcanic ash with a volume of 18 cubic kilometers. Bursts of volcanic ash pushed up to an altitude of 80 km (50 miles). Hard objects which flew into the air it falls on the plains of the island of Java and Sumatra, even to Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan, Australia and New Zealand. A total of 20 million tons of sulfur released into the atmosphere. The eruption in 1883 spent about 25 km3 (6 square miles) of stone.

Impact of Physical Geography

The eruption destroyed Danan Mountains, Mount Perbuwatan and part of Mount Rakata where half cone lost, making the basin width of 7 km and a depth of 250 meters and destroying more than two-thirds of the island of Krakatoa.

Wave

The shock waves from explosions recorded on barographs around the world. Some barographs recorded wave seven times for five days. Four times in the form of waves away from the mountain to its antipodal point, and three times behind the wave back to the mountain. In other words, the wave has circled the earth three and a half rounds.

CHILDREN emergence Krakatau

In 1927, about 40 years after the eruption of Mount Krakatau emerged a new island is known as Anak Krakatau (English: Child of Krakatoa ) from the caldera formed in 1883 that is still active and still growing in height. High growth speed of about 0.5 meters (20 inches) per month. Every year it becomes higher at about 6 meters (20 feet) and a width of 12 meters (40 feet).

Another note said height is about 4 centimeters per year, and if counted, then within 25 years the addition of high-achieving children Rakata 190 meters (7,500 inches or 500 feet) higher than the previous 25 years. The cause of the high mountain was caused by the material out of the belly of the new mountain.

At this time the height of Anak Krakatau reach about 230 meters above sea level, while Mount Krakatau previous height of 813 meters above sea level. Periodic eruptions have continued, with the last eruption in 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012. In late 2011, the island has a radius of about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles), and the high point of about 324 meters (1,063 feet) above the surface sea, or had grown to 5 meters (16 feet) each year.

Eruption Prediction in Future

According to Simon Winchester, despite what happened in the life of Krakatau once very scary realities of geology, seismic and tectonic in Java and Sumatra strange to be sure that what used to happen at some point will happen again. Nobody knows exactly when Anak Krakatau will erupt. Some geologists predict these eruptions will occur between 2015-2083. However, the effect of the earthquake in the Indian Ocean base at December 26, 2004 can not be overlooked.

According to Professor Ueda Nakayama one volcano expert Japanese national, Anak Krakatau is still active and relatively safe although there are often small eruptions, there are only certain times of the tourists are prohibited from approaching the area because of the danger of lava that spewed out of the volcano. Other experts claim there is no plausible theory of Anak Krakatau will re-erupt.

Even if there are at least 3 for another century or after 2325 AD But clearly, the number of casualties incurred more powerful than the previous eruptions. Anak Krakatau today by the general public is better known as “Krakatoa” also, though in fact is a new mountain that grew after the previous eruption.

Comparison eruption by Mount Other

According to researchers at the University of North Dakota, the explosion of Krakatoa (1883) and the explosion of Tambora (1815) recorded a value Volcanic explosivity index(VEI), the largest in modern history. The Guinness Book of Records recorded the explosion of Krakatoa as the most powerful explosion in recorded history.

The Krakatoa explosion in 1883 is still less than the eruption of Mount Toba and Tambora in Indonesia, Mount Tanpo in New Zealand, and Mount Katmal in Alaska. However, these mountains erupted deep in a time when the human population is still very small. Meanwhile, when Krakatoa erupted, the human population is quite dense, science and technology has evolved, submarine telegraph was invented, and the submarine cable has been installed.

Thus it can be said that the current information technology is growing and developing rapidly. Progress is, unfortunately, has not been matched by progress in the field of geology. The geologist was even able to give an explanation of these eruptions. Mount Krakatoa erupted, the tremors felt to Europe.

“Why Indonesia is often hit by a disaster?” This reason !!

Indonesia become disaster-prone areas for several reasons. http://www.whatcausesearthquakes.com firstly because of the nature of it. Our country stands above the confluence of the tectonic plates. As a result, this country is on track earthquakes, faults that cause earthquakes. Our country also has many volcanoes. There are around 140 active mountain. Our tropical climate also causes a lot of unstable ground. A lot of ground was broken.
Tropical climate with high rainfall occurs weathering ease. Natural disasters such as landslides, for instance, it is because the rainfall here is quite high. It is from nature.
Both of the non-natural. Our country is densely populated, especially in Java and Sumatra. If eastern Indonesia may not have been so many. Infrakstuktur we are not designed in accordance with the natural conditions. Building homes, large buildings as well as buildings, not much adapted to the conditions of this nature.
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Indonesia is a meeting area 3 large tectonic plates, the Indo-Australian plate, the Eurasian and Pacific plates. Indo-Australian Plate collided with the Eurasian plate off the coast of Sumatra, Java and Nusa Tenggara, while the Pacific in northern Guinea and northern Maluku. Around the meeting site this plate collision energy accumulated accumulated to a point where the layers of the earth is no longer able to hold off the pile so that energy in the form of earthquakes.

This instantaneous release of energy cause various effects on the buildings because of the acceleration of seismic waves, tsunamis, landslides, and liquefaction. The magnitude of the impact of earthquakes on buildings depends on several things; such is the scale of the earthquake, the epicenter distance, source mechanisms, types of soil layer on the building site and the quality of the building.

The earthquake occurred beginning with the accumulation of stress around the plate boundary, so much seismic activity here. Although the concentration of the accumulated stress due to the collision plate to be around the plate boundary, the consequences could be far-reaching to several hundred kilometers from plate boundaries because there is devolution of stress in the crust, so there is a seismic active area outside the meeting area of the plate.

Sumatra fault case example is the fault formed by the transfer of stress Indo-Australian plate collision with the Eurasian collision angle oblique to the boundary line. This slope causes the fault Sumatra, where the concentration of accumulated stress or centers of earthquakes in this area.

Some well-known active faults in Indonesia is Sumatra fault, fault Cimandiri in western Java, fault-Koro Palu in Sulawesi, Flores reverse fault, reverse fault Wetar, and fault shear Sorong. Activeness of each fault is marked by the earthquake. Earthquake shallow (0-50 km) that occurred in the period from 1900 to 1995 with magnitude 5.5 or more, proving the locations of the active region of earthquake in Indonesia. Most of the quake causing

a disaster, bergatung on a few things:
• Scale or magnitude earthquake
• The duration and strength of vibration
• Distance resources to urban earthquake
• The depth of the earthquake
• The quality of the land and buildings
• Location of buildings on the hills and beach

expert quake from Andalas University, Dr. Badrul Mustapa Kemal, said three regions in Indonesia are not prone to earthquakes namely Kalimantan, Belitung and Riau Islands. “Some areas in Indonesia is prone to earthquakes, but the three areas that are not prone to earthquakes, namely Kalimantan, Belitung and Riau Islands,” he said in Padang, Sunday.

Earthquake-prone areas prone to tsunamis and volcanic eruptions occur along the “ring of fire” from Sumatra, Java, Bali, Nusa Tenggara, Banda, to the Moluccas.

“The area is prone to earthquake and tsunami Indonesia nearly all of them are in the area of very dense population level, but clearly we must remain aware of the occurrence of the disaster,” he said.
According to him, Indonesia’s geological conditions is a meeting of tectonic plates that make Indonesia region has geological conditions are very complex and prone to disaster.

The position of Indonesia in the meeting of two tectonic plates Australia and Asia was very vulnerable, because the plates active and dynamic, constantly moving. He expressed the Asian plate moving south / southeast and the Australian Plate moving northwest. Indonesia was in a “belt” of the meeting.
“Indonesia is the world surrounded by three tectonic plates, Indonesia is also a pathway` The Pasicif Ring of Fire` (Ring of Fire) which is a series of lines of active volcanoes in the world, “he said.