Indonesia is a meeting area 3 large tectonic plates, the Indo-Australian plate, the Eurasian and Pacific plates. Indo-Australian Plate collided with the Eurasian plate off the coast of Sumatra, Java and Nusa Tenggara, while the Pacific in northern Guinea and northern Maluku. Around the meeting site this plate collision energy accumulated accumulated to a point where the layers of the earth is no longer able to hold off the pile so that energy in the form of earthquakes.
This instantaneous release of energy cause various effects on the buildings because of the acceleration of seismic waves, tsunamis, landslides, and liquefaction. The magnitude of the impact of earthquakes on buildings depends on several things; such is the scale of the earthquake, the epicenter distance, source mechanisms, types of soil layer on the building site and the quality of the building.
The earthquake occurred beginning with the accumulation of stress around the plate boundary, so much seismic activity here. Although the concentration of the accumulated stress due to the collision plate to be around the plate boundary, the consequences could be far-reaching to several hundred kilometers from plate boundaries because there is devolution of stress in the crust, so there is a seismic active area outside the meeting area of the plate.
Some well-known active faults in Indonesia is Sumatra fault, fault Cimandiri in western Java, fault-Koro Palu in Sulawesi, Flores reverse fault, reverse fault Wetar, and fault shear Sorong. Activeness of each fault is marked by the earthquake. Earthquake shallow (0-50 km) that occurred in the period from 1900 to 1995 with magnitude 5.5 or more, proving the locations of the active region of earthquake in Indonesia. Most of the quake causing
• The duration and strength of vibration
• Distance resources to urban earthquake
• The depth of the earthquake
• The quality of the land and buildings
• Location of buildings on the hills and beach
expert quake from Andalas University, Dr. Badrul Mustapa Kemal, said three regions in Indonesia are not prone to earthquakes namely Kalimantan, Belitung and Riau Islands. “Some areas in Indonesia is prone to earthquakes, but the three areas that are not prone to earthquakes, namely Kalimantan, Belitung and Riau Islands,” he said in Padang, Sunday.
Earthquake-prone areas prone to tsunamis and volcanic eruptions occur along the “ring of fire” from Sumatra, Java, Bali, Nusa Tenggara, Banda, to the Moluccas.
According to him, Indonesia’s geological conditions is a meeting of tectonic plates that make Indonesia region has geological conditions are very complex and prone to disaster.
The position of Indonesia in the meeting of two tectonic plates Australia and Asia was very vulnerable, because the plates active and dynamic, constantly moving. He expressed the Asian plate moving south / southeast and the Australian Plate moving northwest. Indonesia was in a “belt” of the meeting.
“Indonesia is the world surrounded by three tectonic plates, Indonesia is also a pathway` The Pasicif Ring of Fire` (Ring of Fire) which is a series of lines of active volcanoes in the world, “he said.